Wednesday, 31 August 2017

Tuesday, 20 August 2019

The Composition and Structure of atmosphere

Atmosphere is composed and structured of different gases and layers respectively. Weather and climate is greatly been influenced by it. Well, Weather refers to the state of atmosphere at a specific time which denotes the short term discrepencies in the components like temperature, pressure, cloudless, precipitation, wind and moisture. It is variable and changes with time and day. The anthropogenic changes of The Composition and Structure of atmosphere has great impact on the weather and climatic condition.

Climate, on the other hand refers to the inclusiveness of the statistical weather informations, during a specific interlude of time, of a particular location. It is the agglomeration of all the weather conditions of an area, with deviations, which may or may not take place.

In brief, Weather and Climate plays a very dominant role in the earth's atmosphere. It ascertains the atmosphere of a particular region. Having known and getting a clear perception of what weather and climate is, let's now discuss briefly and have cognizance upon  Composition and Structure of atmosphere.

the-composition-and-structure-of-atmosphere
The Composition and Structure of atmosphere


Composition of atmosphere 


the-composition-and-structure-of-atmosphere
The Composition of atmosphere


The atmosphere is an amalgamation of numerous forms of gases, water vapour, dust particles and other particles as well. 99 percentage of dry air in the atmosphere is constituted by the Oxygen and Nitrogen only. The rest 01 percentage is constituted by the remaining gases, dust particles, water vapour and other solid and liquid particles which is known as 'aerosols.' 

The atmosphere composes the following -

1. Gases - There are nunervous forms of gases in the atmosphere. The most significant among them are
(i) Oxygen - It covers 21 percentage of the earth's atmosphere. It is the most dependable form of gas, which is required for the survival of all living beings.

(ii) Nitogen - It covers 78 percentage of the earth's atmosphere. It is used by chemical industries as a dilute material.

(iii) Carbon Dioxide - It covers 0.03 percentage of the earth's atmosphere. It acts as an absorber of heat and plays a great role in the climatic influence. It is dependent by the green plants to prepare food, through photosynthesis.

(iv) Ozone - It covers 0.00005 percentage of the earth's atmosphere. It absorbs the ultraviolet rays of the sun, thus preventing it to reach the earth surface, which is harmful for all the loving beings.

2. Water Vapour - It covers 0.02 percentage of the earth's atmosphere. Although being present with a very small volume, yet it plays a great role in the atmosphere. It absorbs the hear from the atmosphere, and helps in the formation of precipitation. It's role in reducing the global warming, and temperature and climatic change is of utmost importance.

3. Dust Particles - It refers to all the minute solid particles present in the atmosphere. Water droplets gathers and condenses near dust particles, thus results in the occurrence of condensation. It plays a significant role, for the appearance of the sky to be blue, sunrise and sunset to be orange and yellow, and the rainbow to be of VIBGYOR.

Structure of atmosphere 


the-composition-and-structure-of-atmosphere
The  Structure of atmosphere

The atmosphere is divided into the following categories. This classification was made by the Geographer Patterson.

1. Troposphere - The Troposphere is the lower most layer of the atmosphere, and is present about 14 kilometres about the sea level. It's height varies with place and time. Generally, as per estimations, it's height is 6 kilometres in the poles, 18 kilometres in the tropics, 17 kilometres in the middle latitudes and 16 kilometres in the equator. All the weather conditions like rainfall, snowfall, wind etc, occurs in this very layer. With the increase in elevation, the temperature decreases, at a mean lapse rate of 6.5°C per kilometre, in the Troposphere. There is a presence of a layer known as Tropopause, at the top of the Troposphere, which separates Troposphere from the other layers present in the atmosphere.

2. Stratosphere - The Stratosphere is present just above the Troposphere and commences from the point of ending of the Tropopause. As per estimations, this layer commences at a height of 7 kilometres in the poles, 10 kilometres in the middle latitudes and 20 kilometres in the equator. There is no occurrence of any weather conditions in this layer. The Ozone layer, which absorbs the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun is present in this very layer. There is increase of temperature from beyond 20 kilometres in the Stratosphere, due the presence of Ozone Layer. The volume of the air in this layer is very thin, preventing the movement of any aircrafts. There is a presence of a layer known as Stratopause, at the top of the Stratosphere, which separates Stratosphere from the other layers present in the atmosphere.

3. Ozonosphere - This layer is termed as Ozonosphere, due to the highest concentration of Ozone in it, as compared to other layers of the atmosphere. This layer is present in the lower portion of the Stratosphere, at 15 to 35 kilometres from above the earth's surface. This layer plays a significant role in the atmosphere, as it absorbs about 97 to 99 percentage of the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun, preventing it to reach the earth surface, which is disastrous for the sustenance of life for the loving beings.

4. Ionosphere - The Ionosphere is present beyond the Ozonosphere layer, above 60 kilometres from above the earth's surface. The ionization of the atmosphere occurs in this layer. This layer emphasises upon the generation of atmospheric electricity. It also influences the radio propagation in different parts of the earth's surface. This layer comprises the sub-layers, which are Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere.

(i) Mesosphere - The Mesosphere is present above the Stratosphere and below the Thermosphere. It extends from 50 to 80 kilometres, above the earth's surface. It is the coldest atmospheric layer, and has the capability to freeze water vapour. It burns most of the meteors, thus preventing it to reach the earth's surface. There is decrease of temperature with the increase in height in this layer. There is a presence of a layer known as Mesopause, at the top of the Mesosphere, which separates Mesosphere from the other layers present in the atmosphere.

(ii) Thermosphere - The Thermosphere is present above the Mesosphere and below the Exosphere. It extends from 90 to 1000 kilometres, above the earth's surface. Solar activity emphasises a great role in the influence of temperature in this layer. Gases like helium, atomic nitrogen and atomic oxygen is present in this layer. Aurora Borealis, which is one of an amazing sky phenomena occurs in this very layer. There is decrease of temperature with the increase in height in this layer.

(iii) Exosphere - The Exosphere is the outer most layer of the earth's atmosphere. It extends from 500 kilometres and goes beyond 10,000 kilometres, from above the earth's surface. Gases like Helium and Hydrogen are present in this layer. The temperature in this layer varies from 0 to 1700°C. The temperature is usually hotter at the daytime, while it is colder at the night.

The atmosphere is composed of substantial to subsidiary forms of gases, water vapour and dust particles, which plays a paramount and predominate role in the climatic and weatheric supremacy of a region. Moreover, the diverse layers that we discussed in The Composition and Structure of atmosphere, hold it's own significance.

Monday, 12 August 2019

Difference between Contract and Tort

Contract refers to an agreement which is legitimately bound between two or more parties. It identifies the integrity and duties of the concerned parties. A contract is usually in a written form but it may be spoken or implied as well. Contract Law provides the power of compensation for the destructions caused, by a party from another party. Today, the Difference between Contract and Tort, is what we are primarily going to focus upon.



Before that, let's clarify the nature of Tort. Tort refers to an unjustified act which gives rise to legal liability. Tort Law provides the power to assist relief to the injured party. It gives the power to alter the imposition of burden of loss from the injured party to the party who is actually in fault. Moreover, this law provides the power to take compensation in monetary form only.



Contract Law basically fall under Unilateral Contract and Bilateral Contract. While, Tort Law falls under three categories which are Intentional Torts, Negligent Torts and Strict Liability Torts. Contract and Tort differs in their respective way, and the basic Distinguished between Contract and Tort is been discussed further, distinctively.


difference-between-contract-and-tort
Difference between Contract and Tort

Difference between Contract and Tort


Contract :

1. Definition - Contract refers to an agreement which is legitimately bind between two or more parties.

2. Nature of entering into an agreement - In contract law, the parties concerned must enter into an agreement with full consent and with the involvement of coercion.

3. Contravention of duty - In contract there is contravention of duty which is fixed by the consent of parties.

4. Motive of contravention of duty - The motive of contravention of contract, it is often taken into consideration.

5. Result of contract entered by fault - In contract, a contract entered into by mistake, is a void.



6. Infringement of right - Contract is an infringement of a right in person.

7. Fixing up of duty - In case of contract, the duty is fixed by the will and consent of parties.

Tort :

1. Definition - Tort refers to an unjustified act which gives rise to legal liability.

2. Nature of entering into an agreement - In tort law, the parties concerned may enter into an agreement without any consent.

3. Contravention of duty - In tort, there is a contravention of duty which are primarily fixed by law.

4. Motive of contravention - In tort, the motive for contravention of duty is irrelevant.

5. Result of tort entered by fault - In tort, mistake is no defence, even if it is innocent.

6. Infringement of right - Tort is an infringement of a right in rem. which is the right vested in some determinate person, either personally or as a member of a community.



7. Fixing up of duty - In case of a tort the duty is fixed or imposer by law and is owed to the community at large.

Both Contract Law and Tort Law, are concerned with the infringement of duties, and provides damages or destruction to the victim concerned. Despite of both of them being linked with one other in some way or the other, the basic Difference between Contract and Tort, that we discussed so far briefly, shall be taken into consideration as well, as it is significant enough in the present day.

Tuesday, 6 August 2019

Amazing Destinations of Arunachal Pradesh you should visit

Wondering about to include North-East India to your bucket list ? Then you might definitely been known with the fact that, each state of the entire North-East India holds a spectacular serene panorama along with it's diverse cultural significance. Enclosed by the mighty Brahmaputra and it's tributaries Dibang, Lohit, Subansiri, Kameng and Tirap, the state Arunachal Pradesh is one among them and should definitely be one of your top choices, to journey . Today, explore the land of rising sun, Arunachal Pradesh and the Amazing Destinations of Arunachal Pradesh you should visit which have been stated below.



Hilly areas are most preferable tourist spots, by most of the people in the world. No weather conditions or season hinders the beauty of such regions. The fact that, such areas provides natural composure to one's mind and soul cannot be denied. The chuckle of the green hills against the lumberjacks, the free flowing rivers against the disposal activities by the people, the free blowing air despite the air pollution. Oh what a mesmerizing thing to listen ! Why not then witness it in person ? Arunachal Pradesh comprises all of these.



Arunachal Pradesh, one of the most beguiling region of India, shares international boundary with Myanmar in the east, Bhutan in the west, China in the north (separated by MacMohan Line) and shares borders with Assam and Nagaland in the south. Each of the regions being comprised under the state of Arunachal Pradesh, is both culturally, historically and naturally aesthetic. Intend to visit Arunachal Pradesh ? Then these are the Amazing Destinations of Arunachal Pradesh.




amazing-destinations-of-arunachal-pradesh-you-should-visit
Amazing Destinations of Arunachal Pradesh you should visit


ITANAGAR



Itanagar Arunachal Pradesh
Itanagar


One of the foremost place to visit in Arunachal Pradesh, is the state capital Itanagar. It comprises several spots of attractions worth visit for. The topmost attractions at Itanagar are the Ita Fort, Itanagar Wildlife Sanctuary, Jawaharlal Nehru State Museum, Indira Gandhi Park, Namdapha National Park, Polo Park, Rupa, Ganga Lake.

Roadways serve the best transportation network to visit Itanagar. NH13 and NH15 are the national highways that well connects the roads of Itanagar to other places. No Airports and Railway Stations are located at Itanagar itself, but the nearby Airports and Railway Stations serve good transportation. Rowriah Airport is the nearest airport present at Jorhat, 218 kms away from Itanagar. The nearest Railway is the Harmuti Junction Railway Station and Tezpur Railway Station which are located 30 kms and 2 kms away respectively from Itanagar.

TAWANG


Tawang-Arunachal-Pradesh
Tawang


Equipped with the beauty of Buddhist monasteries and high mountains, Tawang is located 10,000 feet above mean sea level. It's scenic beauty drives away one's mind completely. Some of the best tourist spots located at Tawang are the Tawang Monastery, Nuarang Waterfalls, Bap Teng Kang Waterfalls, Sela Pass, Bumla Pass, Tansang Gompa, Pankang Teng Tso Lake, Shonga Tser Lake, Gorichen Peak.

Road connectivity is well at Tawang. The nearest town is Bomdila which is 160 kms away. In order to reach Tawang, one have to pass through the town of Bomdila. The nearest Airports and Railway Stations are the Tezpur Airport and Tezpur Railway Station respectively. One have to book a cab whether one aspires to take his/her route from either roadway, railway or airway.

BOMDILA



Bomdila
Bomdila




Being located at 8,000 feet above mean sea level, Bomdila is one of the best spot to witness the view of the snow covered Himalayas. Moreover, it's climatic condition is very adjustable and favourable for all. Places worthy to visit in Bomdila are Bomdila Monastery, Upper Gompa, Middle Gompa, Lower Gompa, Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Sessa Orchid Sanctuary, Dirang Valley, Apple Orchards, Tipi Orchadarium, Craft Centre and Ethnographic Museum.

NH37, is the best connecting highway joining Bomdila to all the parts of Assam, making easily accessible to all. One can reach there easily through a bus. The accessible Airports and Railway Stations are the Tezpur Airport and Tezpur Railway Station respectively. One have to book a cab whether one aspires to take his/her route from either roadway, railway or airway.

ZIRO


Ziro
Ziro



The next tourist attraction of Arunachal Pradesh is the awe-inspiring Apatani Plateau Ziro, which was declared as a World Heritage Site. The spots of engrossment at Ziro are Tally Valley Wildife Sanctuary, Tipi Orchid Research Centre, Tarin Fish Farm, Meghna Cave Temple, Bamboo Grove, Pine Grove, Kile Pakho, Dolo Mando, Hapoli.

Road Transport provides the best route to visit Ziro and each of it's spots as well. Good network of roads connects Ziro with Itanagar and Assam. Tezpur is the nearby city, located about 298 kms away. The convenient Airports and Railway Stations near to the city are the Tezpur Airport and Tezpur Railway Station respectively. One have to book a cab whether one aspires to take his/her route from either roadway, railway or airway.


BHALUKPONG




Bhalukpong
Bhalukpong



Aspiring for trekking and river rafting ? Well Bhalukpong is best suitable for such activities in Arunachal Pradesh. Along with such activities, it's serenity provides a natural relaxation to one's mind. The best well known spots in Bhalukpomg are Bhalukpong Fort, Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary, Sessa Orchid Sanctuary and also the Kaziranga National Park located in Assam.

Roads provide well connected routes between Bhalukpong and Tezpur and Guwahati which are 48 kms and 241 kms away from the town respectively. The nearest Airports and Railway Stations are the Tezpur Airport and Tezpur Railway Station respectively. One have to book a cab whether one aspires to take his/her route from either roadway, railway or airway.

ROING


Roing
Roing



Located at Lower Dibang Valley of Arunachal Pradesh, Roing is naturally gifted with lakes, waterfalls and a beauty capable enough to captivate one's mind and soul. Roing comprises some of the most delight spots located near the region itself or some kilometres away from it, and these are Sally Mehao Lake, Mehao Wildlife Sanctuary, Rukmimi Nati, Iphi-Pani Ghat, Bhismaknagar Fort, Hunli, Mayudiya.

Roadways well adjoins Roing with major parts of North-Eastern region of India. Well, the best route to reach there, is to pass through from the nearest town Tinsukia, located at Assam, which is 160 kms away. The nearest Airports and Railway Stations are the Mohanbari Airport, Dibrugarh and Dibrugarh Railway Station respectively. One have to book a cab whether one aspires to take his/her route from either roadway, railway or airway.

PASIGHAT



Pasighat
Pasighat




Ever known what's the oldest town of Arunachal Pradesh ? Well, it's Pasighat, which is also eminently known as the gateway of Arunachal Pradesh. Located on the banks of Siang River, Pasighat is gifted to be the region, where the river flowing from Tibet, that is the Brahmaputra, enters India. Besides, the spots to visit in Pasighat are Saying Ering Wildlife Sanctuary, Pangin, Kekar Monying.

Dibrugarh, Along, Roing are thr nearest towns. The best suited route to visit Roing is through the highway of Dibrugarh, which is 154 kms away from Pasighat. The nearest Airports and Railway Stations are the Mohanbari Airport, Dibrugarh and Dibrugarh Railway Station respectively. One have to book a cab whether one aspires to take his/her route from either roadway, railway or airway.

MECHUKA


Mechuka
Mechuka



Known to be last town of Arunachal Pradesh, Mechuka, is located 6,000 feet above mean sea level. The Mechuka Valley of West Siang District of Arunachal Pradesh, comprises the town Mechuka. The beauty of the river Siyom, can be observed from here, as it flows through this place. Being surrounded by evergreen pine trees, this place holds a great significamce in proving one of the best tourist spot to it's visitors. Moreover, it encompasses certain spots like an Old Buddhist Monastery, Waterfalls, Riverside Retreats.



Mechuka is well connected to the highways of Along, Itanagar and other parts of Assam like Guwahati and Lakhimpur. The nearest Airports are the Mohanbari Airport, Dibrugarh, Gopinath Bordoloi International Airport, Guwahati and Lilabari Airport, North Lakhimpur. The nearest Railway Stations are Silapathar Railway Station, Dibrugarh Railway Station. One have to book a cab whether one aspires to take his/her route from either roadway, railway or airway.



It's always better to confront something in factual, than hearkening for a million times. Awestruck by the fact that Arunachal Pradesh, is emerging to be an excellent tourist attraction. These are the Amazing Destinations of Arunachal Pradesh you should visit. Exploring and being departed in unknown lands on earth, may broaden one's perspective of what a small area one inhabits in the world.

Monday, 5 August 2019

5 Reasons Why You Need To Explore Meghalaya

It's time to promulgate new zest to your mind. The abode of clouds, Meghalaya, located at the North-Eastern region of India will fill your soul. The state was been formed by the tribes of Garo, Khasi and Jaintia, as a self-governing and independent state, segregated from Assam, which it was a part of earlier. It is ranked 24th in the literacy rate of India. Today, the 5 reasons why you need to explore Meghalaya shall proliferate your curiousity towards the place.



Exploring places, never goes out of trend and is only way through which, one can apprehend the ravishing diversification of the world. Being one of the seven sisters state of North-East India, the entire Meghalaya with each of it's districts plays a role of cultural and instinctual significance, which protuberates instantly and manifestly to the people visiting there.



Terrain, altitude and natural reliefs, everything seems to be so exemplary here. What's the gratification, if everything is said so succintly about this perplexing place to explore. No doubt Meghalaya comprises several distinct reasons worthy to visit for, but these 5 reasons why you need to explore Meghalaya discussed further, seems to be more enthralling and conspicuous.


reasons-why-you-need-to-explore-meghalaya
 Explore Meghalaya

 Reasons why you need to explore Meghalaya

Cleanest and Gleaming Village


Mawlynnong-Asia-cleanest-village
Asia Cleanest Village Mawlynnong

Encompassed with the Asia's cleanest village, named Mawlynnong, becomes another notable reason to explore Meghalaya. Along with being the owner of the title of Asia's Cleanest Village for more than a decade, since the year 2003, by Discover India, Mawlynnong has an appropriate and preferable literacy rate as well, for both male and female. There are assorted spots in this village, visited by mass of tourists. Moreover, it embraces certain aspects besides cleanliness, which makes the village beneficial enough to visit for.


Amusement of Hiking and Trekking

hiking-and-trekking-in-Meghalaya
hiking and trekking in Meghalaya


Well, hiking and trekking can be said as alternatives to mountains. But why Meghalaya ? Wondering? It's just because of the fact that these activities are as formidable here, as that in the Himalayan ranges. One can downrightly, witness the presence of themselves amidst the clouds all around, while hiking and trekking. Lingering at camps in the midst of the clouds at the mountains, shall be a great escapade to witness the stars covered sky. Mawlyngot trekking trip, Smit Trek, Pynursla Trek Tour, David Scot Trail are some of the unsurpassable spots for it. Conquer yourselves rather than the mountains.

Caves of Limestone

Limestone-Caves-in-Meghalaya
Krem Liat Prah   Limestone Caves



Wanna seek a treasure ? Here it is - the Limestone Caves. The world's prodigious limestone caves can be found in Meghalaya, mainly in the Garo, Khasi and Jaintia hills. In order to explore the caves utterly, and traverse the secrets behind each cave, rock climbing, mountain climbing and swimming are the foremost and peerless activities or ways, to do so. One will be astonished to know that the Krem Liat Prah, which is the world's largest limestone cave, is found in Meghalaya, at the hills of Jaintia.

Appealing Culture

Meghalaya-Culture
 KaPom-Blang, Shad Suk Mynsiem

Comprising of the paramount tribes Garos, Khasis and Jaintias, Meghalaya encompasses an unique tempting culture that draws most of the tourists to immigrate every year. KaPom-Blang, Shad Suk Mynsiem, Ka-Shad ShyngwiangThangiap are the festivals commemorated on an large basis amongst the tribes. Matrilineal system preponderates here, which makes it more distinct from the other states. An amalgamation of religion Pantheism and Hinduism is also followed by the people of Meghalaya. The unification besides the diverse culture can be contemplated here.

National Parks

 Nokrek National Park
 Nokrek National Park


National Parks are comprised under maximum states. They have the proficiency to add natural greenery to the region wherever they get positioned. Furnished with mountains, hills, cascades, Meghalaya also comprises certain natural parks for the preservation and perpetuation of diverse flora and fauna, making it worthy to visit for the tourists. National Parks of Meghalaya epitomizes one of the pronounced tradition to serve public service. Ever witnessed a Hollock Gibbon in North-East India ? If not than the Nokrek National Park, located at the Garo Hills, is one of the best place to witness so. But it's also a matter of fortuity to see it. This park is also the home to golden cat and ultra-rare red panda. Balpakram National Park and Siju Bird Sanctuary are also located to have a thorough glimpse on the Seashell fossils and diverse Domestic and Seasonal Birds respectively.



If you're already an adventurer, include Meghalaya to your list. And if you are the home-school-job kid than it's time get up from your pillow and visit  Meghalaya. These 5 reasons why you need to Explore Meghalaya might have assuredly broadened your frame of reference towards this place. Don't let your age or vocation to be the barricade, in your way of voyage to the world.

Thursday, 16 May 2019

The Powers of Police Officer under Code Of Criminal Procedure

The Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) is an effective proceeding law of India, which promulgates certain punishments for the offenders or delinquents, under criminal law. It was been authorized in the year 1973 and came into existence or force or commenced on 1st April 1974. Today, we will principally focus upon The Powers of Police Officer under Code Of Criminal Procedure.

The Code of Criminal Procedure possess all the beneficial information regarding and concerned with the procedure that is to be followed, in every investigation, inquiry and trial, for offenses under Indian Penal Code (IPC) or any other relevant law. It deals with certain type of investigations, examination of an accused person, evidences required to prove the accused person guilty or innocent, stating of punishments towards the accused and much more related with aspects only of criminal nature.

The Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) is administered by the bodies such as the Supreme Court of India, High Courts, District and Session Judge and Additional District Judges, Executive Magistrates, Judicial Magistrates, Defense Counsels, Public Prosecutors, Police and Correctional Services Personnel. However, today, we are primarily going to lay emphasis upon Powers of Police Officer .

the-powers-police-officer-under-code-criminal-procedure
Powers of Police Officer under Code Of Criminal Procedure



The Powers of Police Officer under Code Of Criminal Procedure :


Under Code Of Criminal Procedure, the Police officer acquires certain powers. These powers of the Police Officer are dealt by Section 36 to Section 40 Criminal Procedure.

(1) Section 36 : Powers of superior officer of police
This section affirms, the powers of superior officer of police. It states that the police officers who possesses the rank of superiority to an officer who is in charge of a police station may implement the same powers, throughout the local area to which they are appointed.

(2) Section 37 : Demand made by magistrate or police must be credible
This section affirms, the demand made by magistrate or police must be credible and sensible in nature. It states that every person is bound to assist a magistrate or police officer credibly, insisting his/her aid.

(iii) Section 38 : Aid to person, other than police officer, implementing warrant
This section affirms, the aid to person other than police officer, implementing warrant. It states that, when a warrant is directed to a person other than a police officer, any person may aid in the implementation of such warrant.

(iv) Section 39 : Public to give information of disparate offences
This section affirms, the public to give information of certain offences. It states that, the duty ceases when information reaches the police through some other source. The duty of a person to inform emerges, only when he/she is aware of the commission of an offence.

(v) Section 40 : Duty of village officers and inhabitants of a village to provide information about disparate offences
This section affirms, the duty of village officers and inhabitants of a village to provide information about disparate offences. The nature of the duty is expeditious and definite.

The Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) is prevalent all over the territory of India except the state of Jammu and Kashmir. In India, The Powers of Police Officer under Code Of Criminal Procedure that we discussed so far, are been implemented effectively. Another fact under CrPC is that, the Article which have diminished the powers of the Parliament to authorise in Jammu and Kashmir, is the Article 370 of the Constitution of India. Moreover, any of the provisions, besides the provisions of the code under Chapters VIII, X and XI, are restricted to be implemented in tribal areas and in the state of Nagaland as well.

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