Wednesday, 31 August 2017

Thursday, 8 March 2018

The Periods Of Geography's History

The geology or deep time of Earth’s past has been organized into various units according to events which took place in each period. The vast expanse of geological time has been separated into eras, periods, and epochs.

Geography is the study of the physical environment,in relation to the human world.The Periods Of Geography's History are discussed below. The concepts of geography ,are seen to have rooted in the thinking of the philosophers and geographers in different forms.

The Periods Of Geography's History



(i) Greek's contribution :
The period of Greek is basically known as the 'Golden Age of Greece.' The Greeks borrowed various concepts of astronomy, geometry, mathematics from the Egyptians, Assyrians, Sumerians and Chaldean.

a) Homer - He is the most greatest poet of Greek whose work has been published in the form of Odyssey and Iliad. He believed the earth to be circular, which is surrounded by ocean. He also believed the sky to be concave. He developed the concept of four winds Eurus, Zephyrus, Bores and Notus as East, West, North and South respectively.

b) Thales - He originated the concepts of geometry and was the first person to measure the earth. He became the center of trade and commerce which attracted the Phoenician and Greek ships from Black and Mediterranean sea.

c) Anaximamder - He is called as the Father of Cosmology and the founder of astronomy. He explained the concept of the formation of air, earth, water and fire. The instrument Gnomon, which measures the position of sun through the shadows, was introduced by him.

d) Aristotle - The concept of inductive approach was introduced by him. He was known for the concept of the different habitability of earth with difference in latitude. According to him, Torrid zone was uninhabitable while Frigid zone is completely frozen. The only habitable part of the earth is the Temperate zone.

e) Plato - He gave the concept of round earth. He supposed the earth to be located at the center of universe with the celestial bodies in circular motion.

(ii) Roman's contribution :
Romans took over the power from the hands of Greeks. They made their contributions in France, Britain, Europe and Asia.

a) Strabo - He was known as the Father of Regional Geography. He divided the natural features of earth as mountains, rivers etc. He traveled from Frontiers of Armenia on the east to the Shores of Tyrrhenian sea on the west.

b) Ptolemy -  He developed the principles of mathematical geography. The Syn taxis, the Almagost, the Geography, the Optics, the Tetrabiblos etc., were among his best works. He also introduced the Gir and Niger rivers, while giving the tables of latitude and longitude.


(i) Arab's contribution :
The Arabs emphasized on the processes that shape the landforms of earth. They also made contribution in the concepts of physical, regional and mathematical geography.

a) Al-Balakhi - He introduced the first climatic atlas of the world which was titled as Kitabul Ashkal, in 921 AD.

b) Al-Masudi - He introduced the concept of Indian monsoon. He limited the continents and oceans. He was a follower of Greek tradition and took Japan as eastern limit and Eternal Islands as western limit.

c) Al-Biruni - He was the writer of the book 'Great Geography of India', in which he described about the round stones in the alluvial deposits of south Himalaya. This book is also known as Kitab-al-hind.

d) Al-Idrisi - He was the writer of the book 'Amusement', which was mainly based on traveling the world. His contribution of world map, where he pointed various geographical features, is worth mentioning.

e) Ibn-Khaldun - He was the writer of remarkable historical geography, which was the cultural interpretation of physical environment. He is known as the father of modern historiography, sociology and economics.

(ii) Exploration and Discovery's Impact :

a) Christopher Columbus - He was the founder of New World which is also known as America in 1492.

b) Vasco-de-Gama - He entered into Indian ocean, through the Cape of Good Hope and reached India in 1498, by sailing with the Arabs.

c) Ferdinand Magellan - He was the first person who reached Asia, by sailing towards west.

d) Bernhard Varan - He brought up the knowledge of astronomy and cartography. He laid foundation of dichotomy of General versus Regional Geography.

e) Immanuel Kant - He mainly emphasized on Physical Geography and regarded it to be an outline of nature. The geographers wrote about mathematical, political, moral, theological and commercial geography, during Kant's period.


(i) German school's contribution :
German scholars emphasized the foundation of geography as modern science.

a) Alexander Von Humboldt - He was the person to record cold water current near Peru trench, which came to be known by his name as 'Humboldt current.' He stated that low air pressure leads to dizziness. 'Kosmos', which was related to geographical description, was one of his greatest contribution.

b) Carl Ritter - He stated a new term 'Erdkunde', which deals with the complete and cosmical shape of earth. He regarded the main aim of geography to be the study of events of earth along with their principles.

c) Friedrich Ratzel - He made a systematic study of Human Geography, by comparing the mode of life of different locations. In his Political Geography, he gave the concept of living space, which regarded the state to be like an organism that should either grow or die, despite being still.

d) Alfred Hettner - He was the writer of the book 'Europe', in 1907, where he explained geography to be the study of regions. Further, he stated geography to be deal with both regional and general concepts.

e) Ferdinand Von Richthofen - He was the writer of the book 'Geography of China' in 1882. According to him, geography should deal with diverse phenomena occurring on the surface of earth.

(ii) French school's contribution :

The concepts and ideas of German school, spreaded over the neighboring regions, including France.

a) Vidal de la Blache - He was against the concept of environmental determinism. His main contribution was towards the study of man and environment.

b) Jean Brunhes - His major work was 'Geographic Humaine ; Essai de classification positive', published in 1910. He also limited human geography into major parts like to unproductive occupation of soil, destructive economy on nature resulting to poverty and things connected with the conquest of animal and plants.

c) Albert Demangeon - He was the writer of the book 'Geography of Piordy' in 1905. His main aim was to write a volume of Human Geography that would be more necessary than Brunhes ; to write the Economic Geography of the country France.

(iii) British school's contribution :
Till the middle of 19th century, Geography drew a very less attention in Britain. After 19th century, the British Universities introduced Geography as a discipline.

a) Halford Mackinder - He was writer of the book 'Britain and British seas', in 1902. He was the founder of British school of geography. He developed the concept of 'Geographical Pivot of History', which is also known as 'The Heartland theory of Mackinder.'

b) Sir Patrick Geddes - He was the founder of Brutish regions studies, mainly regional survey and applied geography.

(iv) American school's contribution :
In the middle of the last century, the Europeans did not accept the subject in American institutions. W.M Davis was the geographer who founded the subject in America.

a) William Morris Davis - He developed the concept of 'Cycle of Erosion', in 1877. He stated it as geomorphological cycle and topographical cycle as well.

b) Mark Jafferson - He founded the 'Real man oriented geography.' He developed the concepts of central places and laws of primary city.

c) Ellen Churchill Semple - She introduced Ratzel's Anthropogeography to America. She presented her first volume of Ratzel's 'Anthrogeographie' in her work 'Influences of Geographic Environment' published in 1911.

d) Ellsworth Huntington - He was the writer of 'Pulse of Asia', in 1907 and 'Palestine and its transformation', in 1911.

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