Wednesday, 31 August 2017

Friday, 9 March 2018

Physical Versus Human Geography

The study of Geography mainly comprises of Physical Geography and Human Geography as a whole. Physical Geography is the study of the natural environment. It comprises of Climatology, Hydrology, Oceanography, Biogeography, Geomorphology, Pedology etc. Human Geography is the study of man made environment. It comprises of Cultural Geography, Social Geography, Political Geography, Economic Geography, Population Geography, Urban Geography etc.

It is assumed that, there lies a dichotomy between Physical Versus Human Geography.An analysis of how much this assumption is true can be understood from below. The concept based on Physical versus human geography is been discussed below.


Physical Versus Human Geography

The concept of physical versus human geography, was introduced by the Greeks. It is possible to use the concept of natural sciences in the physical studies of meteorology, hydrology, climatology, geology etc. But natural sciences cannot be used to the cultural and physical studies.

(i) Physical geography was stressed out by Hecataeus, while Human geography by Strabo and Herodotus.
(ii) The geographer, Bernhard Varen, was the first person to give suggestions and views related to the difference between physical and human geography, in his book 'Geographia Generalise', in 1650.

(iii) Another geographer, Immanuel Kant, delivered his views regarding physical geography at Germany, in the 18th century.

(iv)others geographers like Alexander von  Humboldt and Carl Ritter emphasized on Physical geography and Human geography respectively. 

(v) Charles Darwin, gave emphasis on the physical geography. He even published a book on 'Physical Geography', in 1848.

(vi) The geographers were so confined towards Physical Geography, that they established the concept of what is called Geomorphology. It was mainly developed by William Morris Davis, in 1893. The study of man was completely excluded
(vii) Friedrich Ratzel and Ellen Churchill Semple, emphasized on lifestyles of the people, which is a part of Physical Geography. Other geographers who were interested and considered Physical Geography as a main field were, Mackinder, Chisholm and Herbertson.

(viii) Thomas Henry Huxley, wrote the book 'Physiography', in the year 1877. Even the Soviet scientists, considered geography to be dealt with Geo morphology, pedology, hydrology and meteorology.

(ix) Physical geography, cannot be understood with the some knowledge of Human geography. The dichotomy between these two, is not compatible without any link with each other.

(x) Carl Ritter and Friedrich Ratzel were among the ones, who emphasized, man to be a center to change the physical environment.

(xi) Vidal-de-la-Blache, regarded that natural and cultural environment, that is, physical and human geography cannot be separated from each other. In fact, they should be considered as inseparables.

(xii) Human geography's main aim was to develop a mutual relationship between man and nature.

Thus, from the above observation it can be concluded that, the dichotomy between physical versus human geography is not logical. Its the development in history, that made an dualism between these two. They both are linked in various prospects.

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