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Wednesday, 4 July 2018

Mountain building theory by Leopold Kober

Mountain building theory by Leopold Kober
After the origin of the continents and oceans basins, due to specific drift and specific laws, the mountains started to originate. Various hypothesis and theories were put forwarded by various scientists to explain the exact cause and way of the mountain building, among which the Mountain building theory by Leopold Kober, was regarded to be the most significant one.

 Kober had explained his theory of mountain building through the basis of geosyncline, and further applied his theory on Alpine  mountain system. To discover more about the mountain building, let's have a glance upon the Mountain building theory by Leopold Kober, discussed further.

Mountain building theory by Leopold Kober

Geosyncline orogen theory :
Leopold Kober, a well known German geologist, was a chief exponent of the continental hypothesis. He attempted to present a systematic explanation regarding the origin of the mountains. 'Der Bau der Erde' was the book from where Kober has derived his views. Kober's main theme behind this theory is the relation of the ancient sills to the shallow mobile zones that is the Geosyncline. 

The geosyncline are narrow and elongated which are found along the side of sea. The distribution of the folded mountains and their relationship with the geosyncline was observed and founded by Kober. He after extensive studies and fieldwork on the Alpine mountain system have founded out that the folded mountains came into existence due to the materials squeezed out of the geosyncline. Thus, the mountain building theory by Kober is known as the Geosyncline orogen theory.

The mountain building process : According to Leopold Kober the mountains where the sediments were deposited were long and wide and not narrow. These sediments were deposited due to the approach of two sides of the geosyncline, which were generally called as foreland. Due to the compressional forces, the two border ranges will come into existence on each foreland.

The two forelands on two sides would have come in contact if the squeezing of the sediments were severe. But undoubtedly there would not have exist any foreland, if such happened. The line of contact between the two forelands is known as Norben. There might have developed an area between the border ranges, where the compressional forces are not strong. And this area is known as Median mass or Zwischengeberg.

Application of the theory : Kober had tested his theory to the mountain building process of Alpine system. The Alpine mountain system was originated from the Tethys sea and gets extended from Gilbrator to the Sunda highlands. Kober had further represented the Alpine orogen through the explanation of the mountains squeezed out from Africa and Europe. He stated the existence of median masses from this, as the Plain of Langadok between Pyrenees and Appenines ; Plain of Hungary between Carpathians and Dinarides ; and also median mass between Caucasus and Taurides. 

Kober's theory also gets satisfied by the alignment of the Central Asian Highlands and the existence of areas of plateaus in between the ranges. The Himalayan mountain system and Kuenlun mountain system are also the folded mountains that were formed due to the deposited materials in the Tethys sea.

Arguments in contrast or against the mountain building theory by Kober : 
1. The force of contraction that was invoked by Kober, for the building of mountains was not sufficient.

2. Further, invoked by Suess, only one side of the geosyncline moves, which was known as backland. The other side of geosyncline remains stable and was known as foreland.
3. The Himalayas were originated due to the movement of Angaraland towards south. The Gondwanaland remained stable, according to Suess.

4. The explanation of the north - south extending mountains, that is the Rockies and Andies, cannot be fulfilled by Kober.

Mountains are the significant relief features that falls under the second order on the surface of the earth. The arguments in the Mountain building theory by Leopold Kober, were not accepted easily by numerous geomorphologists.Various questions aroused like how the sources of the Indian rivers can lie in the median mass and cross the Himalayan system.

 Kober had also applied his theory of mountain building to the submarine ridges of the Atlantic ocean. But despite everything, it cannot be denied that the theory that was put forwarded by Kober, in regard the mountain building, is the most justified one and satisfies the basic questions that arises in one's mind regarding the mountain building theory.

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