Wednesday, 31 August 2017

Tuesday, 20 August 2019

The Composition and Structure of atmosphere

Atmosphere is composed and structured of different gases and layers respectively. Weather and climate is greatly been influenced by it. Well, Weather refers to the state of atmosphere at a specific time which denotes the short term discrepencies in the components like temperature, pressure, cloudless, precipitation, wind and moisture. It is variable and changes with time and day. The anthropogenic changes of The Composition and Structure of atmosphere has great impact on the weather and climatic condition.



Climate, on the other hand refers to the inclusiveness of the statistical weather informations, during a specific interlude of time, of a particular location. It is the agglomeration of all the weather conditions of an area, with deviations, which may or may not take place.



In brief, Weather and Climate plays a very dominant role in the earth's atmosphere. It ascertains the atmosphere of a particular region. Having known and getting a clear perception of what weather and climate is, let's now discuss briefly and have cognizance upon  Composition and Structure of atmosphere.

the-composition-and-structure-of-atmosphere
The Composition and Structure of atmosphere


Composition of atmosphere 


the-composition-and-structure-of-atmosphere
The Composition of atmosphere


The atmosphere is an amalgamation of numerous forms of gases, water vapour, dust particles and other particles as well. 99 percentage of dry air in the atmosphere is constituted by the Oxygen and Nitrogen only. The rest 01 percentage is constituted by the remaining gases, dust particles, water vapour and other solid and liquid particles which is known as 'aerosols.' 

The atmosphere composes the following -

1. Gases - There are nunervous forms of gases in the atmosphere. The most significant among them are
(i) Oxygen - It covers 21 percentage of the earth's atmosphere. It is the most dependable form of gas, which is required for the survival of all living beings.

(ii) Nitogen - It covers 78 percentage of the earth's atmosphere. It is used by chemical industries as a dilute material.



(iii) Carbon Dioxide - It covers 0.03 percentage of the earth's atmosphere. It acts as an absorber of heat and plays a great role in the climatic influence. It is dependent by the green plants to prepare food, through photosynthesis.

(iv) Ozone - It covers 0.00005 percentage of the earth's atmosphere. It absorbs the ultraviolet rays of the sun, thus preventing it to reach the earth surface, which is harmful for all the loving beings.

2. Water Vapour - It covers 0.02 percentage of the earth's atmosphere. Although being present with a very small volume, yet it plays a great role in the atmosphere. It absorbs the hear from the atmosphere, and helps in the formation of precipitation. It's role in reducing the global warming, and temperature and climatic change is of utmost importance.

3. Dust Particles - It refers to all the minute solid particles present in the atmosphere. Water droplets gathers and condenses near dust particles, thus results in the occurrence of condensation. It plays a significant role, for the appearance of the sky to be blue, sunrise and sunset to be orange and yellow, and the rainbow to be of VIBGYOR.

Structure of atmosphere 


the-composition-and-structure-of-atmosphere
The  Structure of atmosphere

The atmosphere is divided into the following categories. This classification was made by the Geographer Patterson.

1. Troposphere - The Troposphere is the lower most layer of the atmosphere, and is present about 14 kilometres about the sea level. It's height varies with place and time. Generally, as per estimations, it's height is 6 kilometres in the poles, 18 kilometres in the tropics, 17 kilometres in the middle latitudes and 16 kilometres in the equator. All the weather conditions like rainfall, snowfall, wind etc, occurs in this very layer. With the increase in elevation, the temperature decreases, at a mean lapse rate of 6.5°C per kilometre, in the Troposphere. There is a presence of a layer known as Tropopause, at the top of the Troposphere, which separates Troposphere from the other layers present in the atmosphere.

2. Stratosphere - The Stratosphere is present just above the Troposphere and commences from the point of ending of the Tropopause. As per estimations, this layer commences at a height of 7 kilometres in the poles, 10 kilometres in the middle latitudes and 20 kilometres in the equator. There is no occurrence of any weather conditions in this layer. The Ozone layer, which absorbs the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun is present in this very layer. There is increase of temperature from beyond 20 kilometres in the Stratosphere, due the presence of Ozone Layer. The volume of the air in this layer is very thin, preventing the movement of any aircrafts. There is a presence of a layer known as Stratopause, at the top of the Stratosphere, which separates Stratosphere from the other layers present in the atmosphere.



3. Ozonosphere - This layer is termed as Ozonosphere, due to the highest concentration of Ozone in it, as compared to other layers of the atmosphere. This layer is present in the lower portion of the Stratosphere, at 15 to 35 kilometres from above the earth's surface. This layer plays a significant role in the atmosphere, as it absorbs about 97 to 99 percentage of the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun, preventing it to reach the earth surface, which is disastrous for the sustenance of life for the loving beings.

4. Ionosphere - The Ionosphere is present beyond the Ozonosphere layer, above 60 kilometres from above the earth's surface. The ionization of the atmosphere occurs in this layer. This layer emphasises upon the generation of atmospheric electricity. It also influences the radio propagation in different parts of the earth's surface. This layer comprises the sub-layers, which are Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Exosphere.

(i) Mesosphere - The Mesosphere is present above the Stratosphere and below the Thermosphere. It extends from 50 to 80 kilometres, above the earth's surface. It is the coldest atmospheric layer, and has the capability to freeze water vapour. It burns most of the meteors, thus preventing it to reach the earth's surface. There is decrease of temperature with the increase in height in this layer. There is a presence of a layer known as Mesopause, at the top of the Mesosphere, which separates Mesosphere from the other layers present in the atmosphere.



(ii) Thermosphere - The Thermosphere is present above the Mesosphere and below the Exosphere. It extends from 90 to 1000 kilometres, above the earth's surface. Solar activity emphasises a great role in the influence of temperature in this layer. Gases like helium, atomic nitrogen and atomic oxygen is present in this layer. Aurora Borealis, which is one of an amazing sky phenomena occurs in this very layer. There is decrease of temperature with the increase in height in this layer.

(iii) Exosphere - The Exosphere is the outer most layer of the earth's atmosphere. It extends from 500 kilometres and goes beyond 10,000 kilometres, from above the earth's surface. Gases like Helium and Hydrogen are present in this layer. The temperature in this layer varies from 0 to 1700°C. The temperature is usually hotter at the daytime, while it is colder at the night.



The atmosphere is composed of substantial to subsidiary forms of gases, water vapour and dust particles, which plays a paramount and predominate role in the climatic and weatheric supremacy of a region. Moreover, the diverse layers that we discussed in The Composition and Structure of atmosphere, hold it's own significance.

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